Students review STD transmission by doing a True/False activity. Working in pairs or triads, they use a persuasion map to develop convincing argument about preventing STDs. Then pairs/triads create STD prevention Public Service Announcements for social media and share them with the class.
The student will be able to …
|Warm up||Bell work + 3 minutes|
|Introduce topic and warm-up answer key||5 minutes|
|Testing locations||5 minutes|
|STD review exercise||10 minutes|
|Persuasion maps||10 minutes|
|Public service announcements||14 minutes|
|Exit ticket||3 minutes|
People can prevent getting HIV and other STDs by not having sex, by using condoms if they do have sex, and by not sharing needles.
Condoms are easy to get and easy to use.
Many teens successfully use condoms.
The only way to know if you have HIV or other STDs is to get tested.
In this community, teens can get tested for HIV and other STDs at (insert clinic name) in this community.
People of all sexual orientations and gender identities need to protect themselves from HIV and other STDs.
Choosing abstinence means a person does not have to worry about pregnancy or STDs.
Standard 1: Students will comprehend concepts related to health promotion and disease prevention to enhance health.
Standard 3: Students will demonstrate the ability to access valid information, products, and services to enhance health.
Standard 4: Students will demonstrate the ability to use interpersonal communication skills to enhance health and avoid or reduce health risks.
Standard 5: Students will demonstrate the ability to use decision-making skills to enhance health.
Standard 7: Students will demonstrate the ability to practice health-enhancing behaviors and avoid or reduce health risks.
Standard 8: Students will demonstrate the ability to advocate for personal, family, and community health.
STD prevention is critical for young people. Ten million new cases of STDs each year in the United States are acquired by people between the ages of 15 and 24.1 This lesson is geared toward middle school students who are currently at risk for acquiring an STD, as well as those who may not need to use prevention strategies for years to come.
The lesson aims to create health-enhancing social norms related to STD prevention by having students create and hear each other’s public service announcements. It also incorporates gist-based decision making related to sexual behavior. Research on this new model demonstrates the importance of teaching young people to apply a “bottom line” rather than teaching a decision-making model that focuses on risks and benefits. In this lesson, the bottom lines are the three primary prevention strategies: abstain from sex, use a condom, and get tested for STDs, including HIV.2, 3, 4
Abstinence and condoms are taught side-by-side in this lesson, as most people use both strategies at different points in their lives. Research has demonstrated that teaching about condoms before a person is sexually active does not cause them to become sexually active any sooner, and in fact, increases the chances that they will use condoms in the future when needed.5
From a public health perspective, testing for HIV and other STDs is a key strategy in reducing transmission. There is treatment for all STDs, including HIV; there is a cure for most STDs. In all cases, prompt identification and treatment for STDs, including HIV, not only improves the health and well-being of the person treated, but greatly reduces chances of transmission to others. Additionally, people who are tested for HIV and other STDs typically receive counseling in reducing their future risk of acquiring an infection and in preventing transmission. From an educational perspective, increasing testing and treatment for STDs is a key behavioral goal toward STD reduction, along with increased condom use and abstinence.6
The lesson includes a general overview of HIV and other STDs, but it does not contain detailed information about individual STDs. Health behavior change research shows that focusing on skills, attitudes and behaviors is more effective at improving health outcomes than memorizing facts.7 Therefore, FLASH deemphasizes memorizing details related to specific STDs.
Sexually transmitted diseases are referred to as STDs in this lesson, as opposed to the also acceptable term sexually transmitted infection (STI). Both terms can be used interchangeably and are medically accurate. This lesson follows the guidance of the CDC in choosing to use STD.
1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015). Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance 2014. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
2. Reyna, V. F., & Adam, M. B. (2003). Fuzzy-trace theory, risk communication, and product labeling in sexually transmitted diseases. Risk Analysis, 23, 325–342.
3. Reyna, V. F., Adam, M. B., Poirier, K., LeCroy, C. W., & Brainerd, C. J. (2005). Risky decision-making in childhood and adolescence: A fuzzy-trace theory approach. In J. Jacobs and P. Klacynski (Eds.), The development of judgment and decision-making in children and adolescents (pp. 77–106). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
4. Reyna, V. F., & Brainerd, C. J. (1991). Fuzzy-trace theory and framing effects in choice: Gist extraction, truncation, and conversion. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 4, 249–262.
5. Kirby, D. (2007). Emerging answers 2007: Research findings on programs to reduce teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. Washington, DC: National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy.
6. Kirby, D., Coyle, K., Alton, F., Rolleri, L., & Robin, L. (2011). Reducing adolescent sexual risk: A theoretical guide for developing and adapting curriculum-based programs. Scotts Valley, CA: ETR Associates.
7. Schaalma, H. P., Abraham, C., Gilmore, M. R., & Kok, G. (2004). Sex education as health promotion: What does it take? Archives for Sexual Behaviour, 33, 3, 259–269.
Reminder: The family homework is available in English, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Vietnamese and Arabic under Resources for Families.
Hand out the Warm Up to students and have them complete the STD Crossword Puzzle. Encourage them to help each other.
Define STDs and explain the topic’s relevance. Show answers to the Warm Up, including where to get testing for STDs and HIV. Pass out Sexual Health Resources in the United States, in King County or create your own list.
Today we’re going to learn about preventing HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. Sexually transmitted diseases, or STDs for short, are common illnesses that a person gets from having sex with someone who already has an STD.
Some students need to know how to prevent STDs because they’re having sex now or will in the future. Some students won’t need the information for many years, or maybe ever, but learning about it will help them act as health educators for their friends and families. It’s an interesting topic, and I’m sure everyone will learn a lot.
Display the answer key, and answer questions.
For answer 4 (Testing), distribute the Sexual Health Resources sheet. Point out if local STD testing services are free or low cost.
Read each statement aloud. Have students indicate their agreement after each item:
Give students the correct answer and respond to any questions after each item. When debriefing answers, be cautious about giving away the answers to subsequent items.
Let’s start with a quick review. I’m going to read a statement aloud. If you think the statement is true, stand up, or false, sit down. If you’re unsure, hold up both your hands. We’ll answer any questions as we go. Ready?
|Statement||Answer||Teacher talking points|
|1. HIV is a virus.||True|
|2. HIV is found in the blood, semen, vaginal fluids and breast milk of someone who has the virus.||True|
|3. Bumps, sores, painful urination and unusual fluid from the penis or vagina are possible signs of an STD.||True|
|4. People who have HIV and other STDs often have no symptoms at all.||True|
|5. HIV can be spread through sweat, tears or urine.||False|
|6. Some people can’t get pregnant after having an STD.||True||This usually happens when someone has had an STD a long time or many times without knowing and without getting treatment.|
|7. HIV can be cured with medicine.||False||There is still no cure for HIV, despite all of the advances in medicine.|
|8. People can live a very long time with HIV with the help of a doctor.||True||Medicine helps people live longer and healthier; helps make them less likely to pass HIV to others; and helps pregnant women not pass HIV to their babies.|
|9. Anyone can get an STD: male, female, trans, straight, gay, lesbian, bisexual, poor, or rich.||True|
|10. A person can get an STD by having unprotected oral, anal or vaginal sex with someone who already has an STD.||True||STDs can spread by semen, vaginal fluid, blood, breast milk or skin-to-skin, depending on the specific type of STD. The most common ways are vaginal sex and anal sex.|
|11. The most effective ways to protect against HIV and other STDs is to not have sex and not inject drugs.||True|
|12. Vaginal, anal or oral sex with a penis is much safer when using a condom.||True||Condoms are the best way for a person who has vaginal, anal or oral sex with a penis to protect themselves from HIV and other STDs.|
|13. Some STDs can be cured with medicine.||True||Many STDs can be cured, and all of them can be made better with treatment.|
|14. A person usually can tell if they have an STD by their symptoms.||False||Most of the time people have no symptoms.|
|15. There is a vaccine to help people prevent getting Human Papillomavirus, a cancer-causing STD.||True|
|16. It is risky to receive donated blood.||False||The blood supply is very safe. It is tested for HIV.|
|17. A person can choose abstinence at any point in their life.||True|
Distribute the Persuasion Map Worksheet and Facts about STDs Handout. Working in pairs or triads, have students fill in the Persuasion Map to create a convincing argument about preventing STDs. The Persuasion Map has three options for main messages that students can choose from.
I’m handing everyone a Persuasion Map worksheet and Facts about STDs handout. The purpose of a persuasion map is to help you create a convincing argument about something. Today, we’re going to create convincing arguments about how to prevent STDs.
Your first task will be to pick one main message out of the three choices in the first box, and circle it. It’s up to you. All are good messages. Then fill in the box with the reasons you think the main message is important, and the facts that support your opinion. The Facts About STDs handout can help you.
You can be creative, as long as you support your opinion with facts, and don’t put down any of the other messages: abstinence, condoms or testing.
We’ll be doing this activity in small groups. (Break the class into pairs or triads.)
Display the Using Social Media to Help Others Visual..
Now we’re going to create Public Service Announcements about preventing STDs. Does anyone know what a Public Service Announcement is? They’re short ads put out by TV, radio, or social media to help change people’s behavior or attitude about important topics.
Read aloud the Using Social Media to Help Others Visual, which includes the activity instructions. Let students know how the PSA’s will be shared, if permitted.
Allow time for each pair/triad to create an STD prevention Public Service Announcement for social media, using their completed Persuasion Map worksheet. Leave 5 minutes for each small group to take turns reading their Public Service Announcement at the end of class.
I’m excited to hear what everyone came up with. Let’s take turns hearing each group’s Public Service Announcement.
Work with your school administrator to determine opportunities for posting the Public Service Announcements online. If this isn’t an option, look at options for sharing the messages within the school building: reader board, school announcements, hallways, classroom, etc.
Allow students to choose between the individual or family homework and explain the assignments as needed.
Reminder: The Family Homework is also available in Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Vietnamese and Arabic under Resources for Families
Hand out the Lesson 5 Exit Ticket.
Question: List at least 2 ways to prevent getting an STD, including HIV.
Enter a zip code to find a clinic that offers HIV testing at www.aids.gov. Develop a flyer or wallet card for the clinic using Microsoft Word, Publisher, PowerPoint or other program. The flyer or wallet card should include the name, clinic hours, address, and statements that encourage testing, without negative judgments or scare tactics.
People of all ethnic and racial backgrounds get STDs. One particular study of an STD called syphilis is well-known in the history of medicine for its injustice. Write a research report on the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment, in which life-saving medicine was withheld from African-American men from 1932 to1972. Be sure to include how the public became aware of the study, and what laws were put it in place to prevent it from happening in the future.